Wednesday, June 20, 2018

"What's in a name? That which we call a Rose by any other Name would Smell as Sweet."

                When Wrong Names are Recorded!


Image Wikipedia. Licenced under Creative Commons.


Wouldn't life be simple if we could believe everything we read? Unfortunately, when it comes to family history, our ancestors did not always leave a factual paper trail for us to follow. Sometimes, the original records we find for ancestors, (often those who were illiterate and who relied upon clerks or others to record details), contain mistakes. There are a number of reasons why names were and still are, recorded incorrectly. Whatever the case, it was the recent discovery that my own first name was wrongly recorded on my daughter's marriage certificate 18 months ago, which made me think about a particular brick wall I had. 

Family historians follow paper trails of names on birth, marriage and death records and we rely on names to find further generations of forebears. A  mistake on a record can cost a considerable amount of time and misguided research. Such was the case with my Scottish GIBSON ancestors.


Image The Blue Diamond Gallery of Free to Use Images, Creative Commons.

This blog is dedicated to the many McDade/Gibson cousins who have traveled with me on our family history journey. To them, I am disclosing that I have discovered an error on a marriage record which changes the fabric of a line of our Scottish ancestry. In this blog post I aim to set things right.

Elizabeth Gibson (1872-1936) Image in possession of author. Permission required to use.


My great-grandmother, Elizabeth Gibson, was the youngest of four children born to James GIBSON and Mary FEARNS in Renfrewshire and Stirlingshire, Scotland. Elizabeth was born on October 18, 1872 in Denny Stirling [1] where the family had moved to, following the birth of their eldest child Margaret Campbell Gibson in 1866.[2]

One thing my Scottish ancestors did almost religiously, for which I am most grateful, was to give their daughters the surnames of grandmothers for middle names. Since Margaret was the second born daughter,to James and Mary, her middle name of Campbell was a significant clue to the maiden name of a paternal grandmother. Findmypast offers an excellent insight into Scottish naming traditions here.[3]


Image Wikipedia Licenced under Creative Commons.

Elizabeth's mother, Mary Fearns, caused me considerable confusion with her surname being spelled on birth and marriage records as FERNS, FEARNS and FARNES and it took me years to discover that Mary's Fearns' own mother's maiden surname of COUPLES was really CUPPLES. Let me just say that this family required quite some research! I wrote a blog post about how I 'accidentally' solved the puzzle of my COUPLES/CUPPLES ancestors, which you can read here.  

The present blog post, however, is not concerned with incorrect spelling, but rather the confusion caused by finding wrong first or given names on records. When we find the names of parents of a bride and groom on a marriage record, it is a big deal. With these names we have discovered a whole new generation of family. But what happens when a name is not correct? I have two cases of wrong given names on marriage certificates in the same family. One of these puzzles, I was able to resolve quite easily, as outlined below in Case 1. The case of James Gibson, however, has been an ongoing and significant brick wall.

CASE 1 - Parents of Elizabeth Gibson.

My great-grandmother Elizabeth Gibson was married twice. On each marriage document, a different father's given name was recorded. At the time of her first marriage to William Kane on March 17,1891, in St Ignatius Catholic Church in Dalziel, Lanarkshire, Elizabeth's parents' were recorded as John Gibson and Mary Ferns


1891 Marriage Elizabeth Gibson and William Kane [4]


When, as a widow, on January 4 1894, Elizabeth married my great grandfather, John McDade in the Catholic Church, at Maryhill, Lanarkshire, her parents were stated to be James Gibson and Mary Ferns. 

1894 Marriage Elizabeth Gibson and John McDade [5]

I knew that the bride named Elizabeth Gibson, named in both marriages was one and same person, because of her mother's name of Mary Ferns. I knew also that Elizabeth had been married previously, since she was a widow when she married the second time to my ancestor John McDade. From Elizabeth's age on the two records I had a range of years within which to search for her birth. But I did not know if her parents were John and Mary Gibson or James and Mary Gibson.

Fortunately for me, Elizabeth Gibson's birth was easily located, being registered in Denny, Stirlingshire, on October 18, 1872, where I expected it to be. Her parents were named as James Gibson and Mary Farns and their marriage was noted as having taken place in December of 1862 at Polmont, Stirling. [6] 



Scotlands People, 1872 GIBSON, ELIZABETH (Statutory registers Births 476/ 158)

I was able to establish that James Gibson (not John) was the correct name for Elizabeth's father since James was the name given on Elizabeth's birth certificate and the birth records for her siblings, Margaret, Robert and Mary. Mary's mother's surname on each birth record was spelled differently as Ferns, Fairns, Farns and Farnes. Despite the confusing variations of Elizabeth's mother's surname, I knew that her father was definitely named James.

 The next logical step was to find the marriage of Elizabeth's parents, James Gibson and Mary Ferns, expecting that the complication would be the many different spellings of Ferns, Fairns, Farnes and Fairns. With these variations in mind, I searched for a marriage in 1862 between James Gibson and Mary (with no surname) on Scotlands People and found the marriage with Mary registered as Fearns (yet another spelling). From this marriage and the names of their parents, I expected to find another generation of ancestors.

CASE 2 - Parents of James Gibson.

On the marriage record of James Gibson and Mary Fearns, the groom's parents were noted as George GIBSON and Margaret CAMPBELL. The bride's parents were George Fearns and Mary Ann Couples.





Searching for a marriage between George Gibson and Margaret Campbell, using a very wide search parameter, I found one only marriage on ScotlandsPeople, between a couple with these names. 

George Gibson and Margaret Campbell nee BULLOCK, widow, married at St Cuthbert's, Midlothian on October 13, 1828. When searching for a birth for a Margaret Bullock, I found one in 1781, to John Bullock and Helen Hill of Perth. I eliminated this Margaret since she would have been too old. The only other was a baptism of a Margaret Bullock, which took place on March 13 1812 in Renfrewshire. This Margaret was the daughter of Sergeant Edward Bullock of the 70th Regiment and Mary McFarlane. 

On the marriage record of Margaret Bullock/Campbell to George Gibson it states that Margaret's first husband had been an Army Captain named Colin Campbell. He had died and they had no issue. Following her marriage to George Gibson, Margaret gave birth to a son named George - in fact the birth took place only two days after their wedding. This was definitely a shotgun wedding and just in time! 

St Cuthberts, Eddinburgh, Image Wikimedia under Creative Commons.

THEN THE TROUBLE BEGAN!

This marriage appeared to be the correct one, in the absence of any other marriage between two people of these names. It was and still is the only marriage I can find of a George Gibson to a Margaret Campbell (albeit married name Campbell, maiden name Bullock). There was no other George and Margaret Gibson who could possibly be my three times great-grandparents. 

No matter how much something appears to match given criteria, you need to look beyond the obvious to find evidence to support you finding. Looking like it is correct, is not the same as being correct. Although George Gibson and Margaret Campbell were the ONLY couple who had married in Scotland with these names, as my research progressed, I discovered things that made me suspect this couple were not my third great grandparents. 

FIVE PROBLEMS WITH GEORGE GIBSON AND MARGARET CAMPBELL/BULLOCK BEING MY THREE TIMES GREAT-GRANDPARENTS 

1. I could find no birth registered for my two times great-grandfather James Gibson, nor births for any other children born to George Gibson and Margaret Campbell. The only birth registered to this couple was George born two days after the marriage in 1828 in Midlothian. 
2. With two grandparents named George - George Gibson and George Fearns-  it seemed unusual to me that George was not a name passed on in this family.
3. In accordance with traditional Scottish naming patterns, the second born daughter of James Gibson and Mary Fearns was given the first name of her paternal grandmother - Margaret but the second name of Campbell not Bullock. This struck me as somewhat odd, since Campbell was the surname of the paternal grandmother's first husband Colin Campbell. Still - stranger things have happened in my family history!

[The firstborn child of my two times great grandparents, James Gibson and Mary Fearns had been traditionally named Mary, after her maternal grandmother Mary Fearns  (name on this birth recorded as Farnes). 

4. Significantly, I started having unexplained Campbell DNA matches pop up. If Margaret was a Bullock by birth then where were my Campbell DNA matches coming from? This suggested to me that James mother was a Campbell as was suggested on his marriage certificate, and that Margaret Campbell/Bullock was not my three times great-grandmother. 
5. If 'my' Margaret Bullock was born in 1812, a marriage in 1828 placed her age at barely 16 years and already a widow. This raised serious doubts in my mind that I had the correct person.

Since there was no other marriage I could find between a George Gibson and a Margaret Campbell, I began to suspect that, similarly to my own daughter's marriage certificate, there had been an error when recording the names of the parents on the marriage record of James Gibson and Mary Fearns.

FINDING JAMES GIBSON'S PARENTS

At the time of his marriage to Mary Fearns, James Gibson's age was given as 21 and Mary was 18 years old. This placed James' birth at circa 1841 and Mary's at around 1844. In the 1871 census James and Mary can be found living in Kirkslap Road, Denny, Stirling. James was an ironstone miner aged 29 years (suggesting a birth year of 1842) and with him was his 30 year old wife Mary. Mary, who was two years younger than James when they married was now a year older. Nothing about researching this family has been simple! 

Their children were Margaret 4, Robert 2 and Mary 9 months. I knew this to be the correct family since the names, birthplaces and ages of the children matched my Gibson family perfectly. 

1871 Census, James Gibson [7]

Since I had established that there was no birth of a James registered to a George Gibson and Mary Campbell, I searched for his birth using his mother's name only. I also widened the search to the years between 1830 and 1845 - in case James' age had been incorrectly documented on records. I used only the surnames of Gibson and Campbell in my search.

BINGO! 


Births registered of James Gibson 1830 -1845 [8]

I found two births of a James Gibson to a mother with the surname Campbell. Both had fathers named James Gibson. The first birth was registered on December 27, 1830, to James Gibson and Margaret Campbell in Abbey, Renfrewshire. The other was in 1844 to James Gibson and Elizabeth Campbell in Govan. 

The birth of son James to James Gibson and Elizabeth Campbell, turned out to be an incorrect transcription. This child was named Robert, not James. That left one birth within the years 1830 and 1845, of a child named James Gibson, born  to a father named James Gibson and a mother named Margaret Campbell. The birth was registered in Abbey, Renfrewshire and the father was a spirit dealer. 


James Gibson, Birth 27 December 1830, Renfrewshire.[9]

SO WHAT WAS WRONG?

This birth in 1830, placed my James' age at 31 at the time of his marriage when his marriage certificate in 1862 stated he was 21 years. It would be an easy mistake to write 21 instead of 31, however this would not explain the ten year age discrepancy in his age again in the 1871 census, when James  claimed to be 29 years old. If James was born in 1830, he should have been 40 or 41 in 1871. One might expect it to be could be a stretch to claim to be 29 years old if you were 40. Putting aside the issues with age differences, I searched for a death for James, now convinced that his father may have been named James and not George, and found it.

James Gibson died in Denny, Stirling, where I knew the couple lived at the time of his death. James, an ironstone miner, died on April 23, 1876 of heart disease, from which it was claimed he had suffered for two years. The record states he was married to Mary Farnes and the witness to his death was the widow herself. James' age at the time of his death was given as 35 years (indicating again, a birth year of 1841). Had he been born in 1830, he would have been 46 years old. 

James Gibson, Death 1876 [10]

HAVE I FOUND JAMES GIBSON'S PARENTS?

Looking for James Gibson's birth raised as many questions as it has answers for me. What I have determined, is that George Gibson and Margaret Bullock/Campbell are not my three times great grandparents. I believe that James' mother was a Campbell by birth. I have DNA matches to prove this. As yet I cannot find enough evidence to prove beyond doubt, that the 1830 birth is that of my ancestor. If my James Gibson was born in 1830, then for some reason he lowered his age by ten years, consistently from the time of his marriage. There are any number of reasons why ancestors did this - eligibility for employment being the most common. Perhaps if his bride was only 18 years old, James feared that Mary's mother (who was alive when they married), would disapprove of the union? 

I have not ruled out this birth, and at this stage it seems the most likely one for my two times great-grandfather. The birth in Renfrewshire matches the birthplace given for him in the 1871 census and it is the only birth of a James Gibson to a mother named Margaret Campbell. I have not yet found enough evidence though, to claim James Gibson and Margaret Campbell from Renfrew, as my three times great-grandparents. 

There are compelling reasons to think they are my ancestors. Margaret's father was Robert Campbell. This would finally explain why the name Robert has been passed on in this family right up to recent times. But wishing something to be true, does not make it so and I am hoping that my Campbell DNA matches will pave the way to knocking down this brick wall.

NOTE: I am rather excited to discover that I have a Campbell bloodline. When my second child was born, I was thinking of naming it if a boy, Campbell (the first child already having a Scottish name). My father in law, (whose mother was a MacDonald from the Isle of Skye) was horrifed. "Never can there be a Campbell and a MacDonald under the same roof", he declared. 

Glencoe, Edwardian painting of the site of the infamous 1692 massacre of the MacDonald clan in Glen Coe, Argyll. This picture is the copyright of the Lordprice Collection and is reproduced on Wikipedia with their permission.

The Campbell/MacDonald rivalry dates back to the massacre of Glencoe in 1692 and it seems that memories of the betrayal have not dimmed with time. I now find it ironic that I am descended from Campbells and my husband from MacDonalds of Clanranald. I guess we have proved that a Campbell and a MacDonald can live under the same roof after all... and hopefully I will have an update soon as to who my three times Scottish great-grandparents really are.

Image Wikipedia Creative Commons Licence


FOOTNOTES

1. Birth of Elizabeth Gibson, ScotlandsPeople, 1872 GIBSON, ELIZABETH (Statutory Registers Births 476/ 158), Crown Copyright, National Records of Scotland.

2. Birth Record Margaret Campbell Gibson, ScotlandsPeople, 1866 GIBSON, MARGARET CAMPBE (Statutory registers Births 562/ 231) Crown Copyright, National Records of Scotland.


4. Marriage Elizabeth Gibson to William Kane, ScotlandsPeople, 1891 Kane, William )Statutory Registers Marriages 639/ 49) Crown Copyright National Records Scotland. 

5. Marriage Elizabeth Gibson and John McDade, ScotlandsPeople, 1894 McDade, John (Statutory Register Marriages 622/1 25) Crown Copyright National Records Scotland. 

6. Marriage James Gibson and Mary Fearns, ScotlandsPeople,1862 GIBSON, JAMES (Statutory registers Marriages 487/ 32), Copyright National Records Scotland. 

7. 1871 Census, James Gibson, ScotlandsPeople, 1871 GIBSON, JAMES (Census 476/ 1/ 18) Page 18 of 27, Copyright National Records Scotland. 

8. Birth, James Gibson, ScotlandsPeople, Church Registers - Old Parish Registers Births and Baptisms, ScotlandsPeople, https://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

9. Birth, James Gibson, ScotlandsPeople, 27/12/1830 GIBSON, JAMES (Old Parish Registers Births 559/ 60 326 Abbey) Page 326 of 351, Copyright National Records Scotland. 

10. Death, James Gibson, 1876, ScotlandsPeople, 1876 GIBSON, JAMES (Statutory registers Deaths 476/1 45)





Tuesday, May 15, 2018

THE TWIST IN THE TALE OF TWO WILLIAMS


THE TALE OF TWO WILLIAMS - THERE'S A TWIST

Image 'Oliver Twist', Wikipedia, Reproduced under Creative Commons Licence

“There is always a pleasure in unravelling a mystery, in catching at the gossamer clue which will guide to certainty.” 
― Elizabeth GaskellMary Barton

In a blog post of February 23, 2018, entitled The Tale of Two Williams, I talked about the importance of finding evidence to support genealogical findings. In that post, Part 1 of The Tale of Two Williams - I left readers hanging with the promise of a twist to the ending of my story. This, as promised, is Part 2 of the tale - and there's a twist at the end!

A BRIEF OVERVIEW

I had become convinced that I had the incorrect parents on my family tree, for my third great grandfather William Hoyes, a weaver from Newark Nottinghamshire. The parents I had thought to be his, were Thomas Hoyes, born 1768 Girton, Nottinghamshire and Ann Machin, born in Claypole, Lincolnshire. The research was very old and originally undertaken by someone else, in the days before records became available online. With members of my 18th century Hoyes family moving regularly between Nottinghamshire and Lincolnshire, and boundary changes to registration districts, it was easy see why there was some confusion as to who was who. Increasingly, over the years, I had nagging doubts that Thomas and Ann Hoyes were my really fourth great grandparents but I had to find the time to research the problem. You can read the first part of my tale here. 


Discounting the theory that William was in two places at one time (and had two occupations), I concluded that my third great grandfather, William Hoyes, living with his wife Deborah Berry in the above 1841 census in Newark, Nottinghamshire, was NOT the William Hoyes who was born in Claypole, Lincolnshire in 1809, to Thomas and Ann Hoyes.


The result seems so simply obvious when I tell the story now, but the undoing of years of research (especially when the original research was not done by myself) was a mammoth job. Online records have made the task of finding people easier than when this original research was done - especially when you are looking for multiple people of the same name - like my William Hoyes. 

1841 Census, William Hoyes, Newark Upon Trent, Image Ancestry.com [3]

I finally reached the conclusion that the William Hoyes who was my third great grandfather, was born on August 4, 1810 in Newark, Nottinghamshire to John Hoyes and his wife Mary (possible surname KENNERAL). I believe that the original research was confused by the fact that by 1851, BOTH William Hoyes of the same name and approximate age, were living in Nottinghamshire. 

Below is William Hoyes born Claypole, Lincolnshire, who was living in South Collingham, Notinghamshire in 1851. In this census record he is recorded as being aged 41 years, works as an agricultural labourer (ag lab) and lives with his wife Mary and sons Samuel 4 and Thomas 3. 
William Hoyes born Claypole, Lincolnshire 1851 Census, Ancestry.com [4]
Below is my William Hoyes, in the same 1851 census, living also in Nottinghamshire, a weaver, in Scales Row, Newark aged 40 years. With him are wife Deborah and children John 14, Mary 13, George 10, Thomas 8, Samuel 6, Alfred aged 6 months and mother in law Mary Berry. First and second sons James and William were married and so did not appear in this census with their parents.

William Hoyes born Newark Nottinghamshire 1851 Census Ancestry.com [5]
Now, if only my Nottinghamshire ancestors had been thoughtful enough to adhere to the strict naming patterns that many of my Scottish families did - first son after grandfather and the second after the father - my search would have been so much more straightforward. There was one clue in the names of children however - my William Hoyes had a son named John and did not have a son called Thomas. William of Claypole, had a son named Thomas, likely named for his father.

NEARING THE TWIST IN THE TALE...


Resigned to the fact that Thomas Hoyes (born 1768 in Girton, Nottinghamshire) and Ann Machin (born ab 1765 in Claypole, Lincolnshire) were not my fourth great grandparents, you might recall that I took the enormous step of removing them and all generations before them, from my family tree. Along with them, disappeared Thomas's parents William and Mary Hoyes and his his brothers and sisters. My daughter recalls me saying, "I don't know if I can do this..."


On a positive note, I had gained new fourth great grandparents named John and Mary Hoyes, with whom I needed to become acquainted.




Image Pixabay reproduced under creative commons licence
“Watch the beauty of your life tree old leaves falling and allowing new ones to sprout !” 
― Joy Lima


CLUES  FOUND IN MY SEARCH FOR JOHN HOYES


If you've read the first installment of this tale you will know that I found who I believed to be William's real father, John Hoyes, in the 1841 census, aged 80, living with a Sarah and Robert Beecham. Robert was a weaver like William himself. Listed with them were their children Elizabeth, Charlotte and Robert and a three year old by named William Stones.



1841 Census, John Hoyes, The Genealogist [6]

COULD ANOTHER WILLIAM BE A CLUE?


I wondered if  the Beecham family or William STONES might turn out to be a vital piece of evidence in proving beyond a doubt that John Hoyes was William's father and my fourth great grandfather?


Interestingly I did find a marriage between a Sarah Hoyes to Robert Beecham at Radford, Nottinghamshire on June 12, 1831. Searching for a marriage between a female Hoyes and a man named Stones I found incredibly that in Radford, Nottinghamshire on the very same day, June 12, 1831 a  Charlotte Hoyes had married a Samuel Stones. It appeared that two sisters had married in a double wedding! A convincing discovery, but I still needed evidence that these two ladies were my William's sisters.


Since William had just lost all of his 'not real' siblings when I deleted his incorrect family from my tree, I knew nothing about his parents or siblings yet. I researched Samuel and Charlotte Stones and discovered that they had four sons including one named WILLIAM, born in the April to June quarter of 1838. This William would have been three years old in the 1841 census, the same age as the William Stones staying in Spittal Row, Newark with John Hoyes and the Beecham family. Would this William might prove to be an important clue in my tale of two Williams. If so, I needed to link Charlotte Hoyes to my William.


Charlotte's husband Samuel had died in October of the previous year and when I looked for  Charlotte in the 1841 census, I discovered her widowed, living in Ellis Row Newark, with sons John 9, Thomas 7, and George 1 year. William was not with her so it was entirely possible that he was the boy named William staying in the Beecham household on the night of the 1841 census.



Charlotte Stones with son John 9, in Ellis Row, Newark, 1841 Census, The Genealogist [7

FINDING  JOHN HOYES -  WILLIAM'S REAL FATHER


According to the 1841 census, John Hoyes was born in 1761, but considering that ages were rounded up or down in this census, I widened my search parameter for his birth. He claimed to have been born in Nottinghamshire, but to be on the safe side, I searched for a birth in neighbouring Lincolnshire as well.


I was able to eliminate all men named John Hoyes born within twenty years of 1761 in Lincolnshire. The few other men by the name of John Hoyes had either died before 1841, when I knew my John to be living in Newark, Nottinghamshire, or were living in the wrong place at that time. I knew therefore, that my John Hoyes was not born in Lincolnshire but in Nottinghamshire. I narrowed my search to only one birth that could possibly fit that of my fourth great grandfather. He was John Hoyes who was born and baptised in 1766 in Girton, Nottinghamshire, to parents William and Mary.




Image Wikipedia reproduced under creative commons.

AND FINALLY  - 

                                 THE TWIST ... LIKE A FLASH OF LIGHTNING...

It suddenly occurred to me that Girton, Nottinghamshire, was where Thomas Hoyes, (my now deleted ancestor) was born in 1768, to parents also named William and Mary. Thomas, the man I had wrongly believed to be my fourth great grandfather, had the following siblings all born in Girton - William 1762,  James 1764,  John 1766,  Ann 1775 and Olivia 1777. 


A name jumped out at me - JOHN.  Thomas had a brother named John born in 1766 in Girton, Nottinghamshire. Since this was the only baptism of a John Hoyes in Nottinghamshire between 1755 and 1780, I realised incredibly that THOMAS AND JOHN HOYES WERE BROTHERS! The man I had just deleted from my family tree was, in fact, still my relative!



Baptism of John Hoyes, 1766, Girton, Nottinhamshire, Findmypast [9].
One birth for a John Hoyes and one marriage for a John Hoyes on February 11, 1794 to Mary DORRENCE.


Marriage John Hoyes, Findmypast [10]

THOMAS HOYES WAS MY FIFTH GREAT UNCLE


This discovery meant that my family tree back from John and Mary Hoyes would remain the same as it had been when Thomas and Ann were incorrectly named as William's parents. Ofcourse I had to put all of those ancestors back on there first. Even the thought of that huge job couldn't ruin my serendipitous moment.


LINKING THE REST OF THE CLUES


I was still intrigued by the three year old William Stones I had found with John Hoyes in the 1841 census. I could prove he was related to my William and John Hoyes if I could find sisters for William named Sarah and Charlotte who had shared a double wedding in Radford in 1831.



Image Wedding Mid 19th century, Wikipedia, Creative Commons

It didn't take me long to find the evidence I needed. John and Mary Hoyes ( MY REAL FOUR TIMES GREAT GRANDPARENTS) had the following children born in Nottinghamshire - Sarah (1794), John (1797), William (1798), William 1803-1805), John (1803), Charlotte 1807 and William 1810 ( my third great grandfather). I had found William's sisters, Sarah and Charlotte.


Sarah Hoyes was born in Newark in 1794 and Charlotte Hoyes was born in Hawton, Nottinghamshire in 1807. In the 1841 census Charlotte's age had been rounded down to 30 when it was really 34. William's sister Sarah Hoyes had married a weaver named Robert Beecham and was the Sarah Beecham with whom John Hoyes was living in 1841. William Stones was Charlotte's son and therefore the grandson of John Hoyes. Two sisters, aged eleven years apart, and their double wedding confirmed for me that John Hoyes living at Spittal Row, Newark, Nottinghamshire, was indeed my ancestor.



 “Never give up, for that is just the place and time that the tide will turn.” ―Harriet Beecher Stowe




And so, The Tale of Two Williams comes to the end. But this tale has a most happy ending and a wonderful twist. I had not wasted years of research into my Hoyes family and have returned them to their rightful places on my family tree. Most importantly, I now have the correct four times great grandfather, JOHN HOYES and fourth great uncle THOMAS HOYES  on my family tree exactly where they both belong. 



Footnotes

1. Birth, William Hoyes, Claypole, Lincolnshire, 1809, England Births and Baptisms 1538-1975, Findmypast, https://search.findmypast.com.au/record?id=r_942913757 , accessed most recently 1 February 2018.



3. 1841 Census, William Hoyes, Class HO107, Piece 868, Book 7, Civil Parish, Newark Upon Trent, County Nottinghamshire, Enumeration District 14, Folio 29, P. 9, Line 18, GSU roll 47569, Ancestry.com, https://www.ancestry.com/interactive/8978/NTTHO107_867_869-0360?pid=9259284&backurl=https://search.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/sse.dll?indiv%3D1%26dbid%3D8978%26h%3D9259284%26ssrc%3Dpt%26tid%3D15450749%26pid%3D268185434%26usePUB%3Dtrue&ssrc=pt&treeid=15450749&personid=268185434&hintid=&usePUB=true&usePUBJs=true, accessed most recently 1 February 2018.

4. 1851 Census, William Hoyes, South Collingham, Lincolnshire, Ancestry.com, https://www.ancestry.com/interactive/8860/NTTHO107_2135_2137-0161/10342215?backurl=https://www.ancestry.com/family-tree/person/tree/15450749/person/29803933124/facts/citation/1040249298027/edit/record


5. 1851 Census, William Hoyes, Newark, Nottnghamshire, Ancestry.com, search.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/sse.dll?db=uki1851&h=17778349&ti

=0&indiv=try&gss=pt


7. 1841 Census, Charlotte Stones, Newark, Nottinghamshire, Findmypast, https://search.findmypast.com.au/record?id=gbc%2f1841%2f0868%2f0126&parentid=gbc%2f1841%2f0003181922 

8.Baptism, John Hoyes, 1766, Girton, Nottinghamshire, Findmypast,https://search.findmypast.com/record?id=gbprs%2fnottinghamshire%2fbap%2f000609024 , accessed most recently February 2018.

9. Baptism, John Hoyes, 1766, Girton, Nottinghamshire, Findmypast,https://search.findmypast.com/record?id=gbprs%2fnottinghamshire%2fbap%2f000609024 , accessed most recently February 2018.

10. Marriage, John Hoyes and Mary Dorrence, Findmypast, Marriage, John Hoyes and Mary Dorrence, 1794, Findmypast, https://search.findmypast.com/record?id=prs%2fnottsfhs%2fmar%2f00145270%2f1, accessed 1 February 2018.